miércoles, 1 de agosto de 2012

2ºBACHILLERATO - REPASO TEMA 4 - CONDITINAL CLAUSES, ETC


UNIT 4:

[VOCABULARY
[ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION
[ CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
[WISH / IF ONLY

ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION (completad la lista con la de vuestro libros)

nice / kind / good / stupid / silly / intelligent / clever / sensible / (im)polite / rude / unreasonable OF someone (to do something):
                 Thank you it was very nice / kind of you to help me.
                 It's stupid of her to go out without a coat.

nice / kind / good / (im)polite / rude / (un)pleasant / (un)friendly / cruel TO someone:
               She has always been very nice / kind to me.
               Why are you so rude / unfriendly to Ann?
angry / furious ABOUT something // WITH someone FOR something:
               Why are you so angry about it?
               They were furious with me for not inviting them to my party.
pleased / disappointed / satisfied WITH something:
               I was pleased with the present you gave me.
               Were you disappointed with your examination results?
bored / fed up WITH something:
              You get bored / fed up with doing the same thing every day.
surprised / shocked / amazed / astonished AT / BY something:
              Everyone was surprised by /at the news.
excited / worried / upset ABOUT something:
              Are you excited about going on holiday next week?
afraid / scared  / frightened / terrified OF someone / something
             Are you afraid of dogs?
proud / ashamed OF someone / something:
             I'm not ashamed of what I did.
good / bad / excellent / brilliant / hopeless  AT (doing) something:
             I'm not very good at repairing things.
married TO someone
            Linda is married to an American.
sorry ABOUT something:
           I'm sorry about the noise last night.
sorry FOR doing something
            I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday.
be / feel sorry FOR someone
            I feel sorry for George.
famous FOR something:
            Florence is famous for its art treasures.
responsible  FOR something:
            Who was responsible for this noise last night?
interested IN something:
           Are you interested in art?
fond OF something / someone:
           Mary is fond of animals.
full OF something:
            The letter was full of mistakes.
short OF something:
            I'm a bit short of money.
keen ON something:
            We stayed at home because Mary wasn't very keen on going out in the rain.
similar TO something:
            Your writing is similar to mine.
crowded WITH (people,...)
            The city was crowded with tourists.

Complete the sentences with a suitable preposition
Principio del formulario
1. If you are serious ………going ahead with this, let's have a meeting.
2. The Mini-TV is very popular …………… our younger customers.
3. The new Pilot notebook is similar ………. the previous model, but it has some interesting new features.
4. The Finance Director said he was strongly opposed ………….. awarding everyone a tax refund.
5. South Africa is rich …………. natural resources like diamonds and gold.
6. I have to travel by car or boat because I am afraid ………….. flying.
7. He has very little experience. I don't think he would be capable …………  running such a large project.
8. I would be very interested …………. discussing the idea of a joint venture.
9. Samsung are famous ……….. their electronic goods.
10. I am very proud ……….. my younger sister.
11. We are pleased ……….. the results.
12. I'm not sure if he is aware ……………… all the facts.
13. I am answerable ………… my supervisor at work.
14. There was a photograph attached ……….. the e-mail.
15. We are enthusiastic ……….. learning English.

SERIOUS AABOUT / POPULAR WITH / SIMILARL TO / OPPOSED TO / RICH IN / AFRAID OF / CAPABLE OF / INTERESTED IN / FAMOUS FOR / PROUD OF / PLEASED WITH / AWARE OF / ANSWEARABLE TO / ATTACHED TO / ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT.



(be) afraid of
(be) angry at / with someone
(be) angry about something
(be) ashamed of
(be) bad at
(be) bored with
(be) crazy about
(be) different from
(be) famous for
(be) fed up with
(be) good at
(be) interested in
(be) nice to
(be) proud of
(be) sorry about something
(be) sorry for doing something
(be) worried about


1. Paul is sorry …………having broken this plate.
2. I would like to meet an English pen pal because I am too bad.. …………English.
3. Betty is proud ……………her son, he passed his exams.
4. This child is sad; he is getting bored …………his parents.
5. Of course, Mary is worried ………his father's health.
6. In my family, my grandmother is famous …………her cooking.
7. Your son seems to be uninterested …………my lessons.
8. Stop it! I am fed up …………your criticisms!
9. I love my friend, but he is very different …………me.
10. My journey was marvellous and my correspondent's family was very nice ………me.


CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Utilizamos las oraciones condicionales cuando queremos hablar de una posible situación y sus consecuencias.

Las oraciones condicionales tienen dos partes: la oración subordinada (la oración que expresa la condición y comienza con if) y la oración principal, que enuncia el resultado o consecuencia. En la oración If it rains, I will stay at home, la oración subordinada es If it rains, y la oración principal es I will stay at home.

Debemos usar una coma para separar la oración principal de la subordinada cuando escribimos primero la oración subordinada y luego la principal. En caso contrario, cuando la oración subordinada sigue a la principal, no se utiliza coma:

                 I will stay at home if it rains.

Hay varios tipos de oraciones condicionales:



CONDICIONALES TIPO O

                              If + Present Simple      Present Simple

Utilizamos dos tiempos presentes para expresar leyes naturales, reacciones habituales o algo que normalmente es verdad:

                If you heat ice, it turns to water.

                If there is a shortage, the price of oil goes up.

Para situaciones pasadas utilizamos dos tiempos pasados:

          If I finished my homework early, I played with my computer

 En este tipo de oraciones condicionales podemos utilizar When o Whenever en vez de If :

               When you heat ice, it turns to water.

               Whenever there is a shortage, the price of oil goes up.


CONDICIONALES DE TIPO I: PROBABLES


                           If + Present Simple         WILL + V

Cuando queremos expresar situaciones que son posibles o probables, el verbo de la oración subordinada va en presente y el verbo de la oración principal en futuro:

                      If you hurry, we will catch the bus.


Otras combinaciones de tiempos verbales:

Ø  If + Present Simple Imperative

                If you are tired, go to bed.

Ø  If + Present Simple Modal (can, may)+ V

               If you are hungry, you can make yourself a sandwich.


 
CONDICIONALES DE TIPO II: IMPROBABLES O HIPOTÉTICAS


                          If + Past Simple   WOULD + V

Cuando hablamos de una situación improbable, el verbo de la oración subordinada va en pasado simple y el verbo de la oración principal en condicional:

              If I dropped this, it would explode.


El pasado simple en la oración subordinada no es un verdadero pasado, sino que en realidad es subjuntivo, lo que indica improbabilidad o irrealidad. Puesto que el verbo BE sí tiene un pasado de  subjuntivo, que es were para todas las personas, se puede utilizar If I/he were en vez de If I/he was.

Sin embargo, siempre decimos If I were you para dar consejo:

       If I was/were offered a ticket, I would take it.

       If I were you, I wouldn’t do it.


Otras combinaciones de tiempos verbales:

Se puede usar might o could en vez de would para expresar posibilidad, incertidumbre o permiso:

Ø  If + Past Simple Might + V
                 If you tried again, you might succeed.

Ø  If + Past Simple Could + V

                 If it stopped snowing, you could go out.

C              CONDICIONALES DEL TIPO III: IMPOSIBLES O IRREALES


         If + HAD + Participio pasado       WOULD HAVE + Participio pasado


Cuando hablamos de una situación pasada que podría haber ocurrido pero que de hecho no ocurrió, el verbo de la oración subordinada va en pretérito pluscuamperfecto y el verbo de la oración principal en condicional perfecto:

             If I had known, I would have bought it.


Otras combinaciones de tiempos verbales:

Se puede utilizar might have o could have para expresar una posibilidad que no llegó a realizarse:

Ø  If + Had + Past participle might have + past participle

              If we had saved more money, we might have gone on holiday.

Ø  If + Had + Past participle could have + past participle

              If we had saved more money, we could have gone on holiday.


OTRAS FORMAS DE DECIR IF

                    Unless + verbo afirmativo = If + verbo negativo

Unless it stops raining, we won’t go out. = If it doesn’t stop raining, we won’t go out.

Unless quiere decir ‘excepto con la condición de que / a menos que / a no ser que’ y no se puede usar en oraciones en las que algo sería el resultado de que otra cosa no ocurriese:

                   She’d be pretty if she didn’t wear so much makeup

                  *She’d be pretty unless she wore so much makeup



                         But for = If it were not for / If it had not been for


But for the storm, we would have arrived earlier. = If it hadn’t been for the storm...

                  Provided / Providing (that) = If and only if


             You can camp in my field provided you promise to leave no mess.


 
                     As long as / So long as = If and only if

             You can go out tonight, as long as you come back by midnight.


 
                      On (the) condition that = If and only if

         She agreed to come on (the) condition that she could bring her pet canary.


 
                       Suppose / Supposing (that)? = What if?

        Suppose the plane is late? = What will happen if the plane is late?

        Suppose he went by train? = What would happen if he went by train?

        Supposing no one had been there? = What would have happened if no   

                                                                       one had been there?


 





I WISH / IF ONLY
  • Usamos I wish and If only + past or could cuando deseamos que algo en el presente o futuro fuese diferente.
    Ejemplo:
    I wish I could sing. If only I wasn’t ill.
    (Ojalá pudiera cantar. Desearía no estár enfermo)
  • Usamos I wish and If only + past perfect or could have cuando lamentamos algo en el pasado.
    Ejemplo:
    I wish I could have seen him before he left.
    (Ojala pudiera haberle visto antes de que se fuera)
    If only I had told the truth.
    (Ojalá hubiera contado la verdad)
  • Usamos I wish and If only + would para quejarnos sobre una conducta o algo dicho.
    Ejemplo:
    I wish he would stop smoking!
    (¡Desearía que pararas de fumar!)

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